• MOHAMAD ZREIK Faculty of Politics and International Studies, Central China Normal University, Hubei, China.


Myanmar, internal conflict, conflict mapping, conflict transformation, peace building


The conflict in Myanmar “formerly known as Burma” is one of the main ongoing internal conflicts in the world. This conflict is due to ethnic, religious and historic reasons. Each party involved in this conflict wants to control and dominate the other parties, in a process that lacks to democracy “through power”. This paper will tackle the issue of the internal conflict in Myanmar by showing some historic facts and presenting main details about the conflict. In this study conflict mapping will be used to illustrate the positions of each party involved in this conflict. This study suggests options to transform the conflict and to create sustainable peace in Myanmar. In this paper empirical approach will be used to state some facts about the conflict in Myanmar. Also, normative approach will be used to ask about the internal conflict in Myanmar and its future.

Author Biography

MOHAMAD ZREIK, Faculty of Politics and International Studies, Central China Normal University, Hubei, China.

Mohamad Zreik is a PhD candidate at the School of Politics and International Studies (SPIS), Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei, China. His research focuses on the Belt and Road Initiative and the Chinese presence in the Middle East, especially in Lebanon.


Al Jazeera Official Portal (2012): Blood and Gold: Inside Burmas’hidden war. – Al Jazeera Official Portal. Available on:


Asian Review Official Portal (2017): Buddhist nationalism challenges Myanmar’s government. – Asian Review Official Portal. Available on:


Barta, P. (2012): U.S. Forges deeper Myanmar ties. – The Wall Street Journal. Available on:


BBC News (2016): U.S. lifts decades-long trade sanctions against Myanmar. – BBC Official Portal. Available on:


Dittmer, L. (2010): Burma or Myanmar? The struggle for national identity. – University of California, Berkeley, USA 396p.

Dolan, T., Gray, S. (2014): Media and conflict in Myanmar: Opportunities for media to advance peace. – United States Institute of Peace. Available on:


DPA (2012): Chennai. Rohingyas are not citizens: Myanmar minister. – The Hindu. Available on:


Eleven Media Group Official Portal (2019): Kachin people suggests KIO to sign the NCA after adjustments. – Elevan Media Group Co. Ltd. Available on:


European Union External Action Service (2015): EU witnesses two more parties sign Myanmar’s nationwide ceasefire argument. – EEAS Official Portal. Available on:


Fan, H. (2012): The 1967 anti-Chinese riots in Burma and Sino-Burmese relations. – Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 43(2): 234-256.

Fink, C. (2001): Living silence: Burma under military rule (politics in contemporary asia). – Zed Books 320p.

Freeman, J. (2017): Hundreds dead in Myanmar as the Rohingya crisis explodes again. – Chicago Tribune. Available on:


Fuller, T. (2013): Ethic rifts strain Myanmar as it moves toward democracy. – The New York Times. Available on:


Han, K.K. (2003): 1990 Multi-party democracy general elections. – Democratic Voice of Burma 301p.

Hodal, K. (2013): Aung San Suu Kyi offers to mediate Burma peace talks. – The Guardian Official Portal. Available on:


Horsey, R. (2015): The importance of the Myanmar Peace Deal. – International Crisis Group. Available on:


Houtman, G. (1999): Mental culture in Burmese crisis politics. – Tokyo University of Foreign Studies 402p.

International Crisis Group (2017): Buddhism and State Power in Myanmar. – Asia Report 39p.

International Federation for Human Right (2009): UN general assembly resolution: Time for concrete action. – FIDH: International Federation for Human Right Official Portal. Available on:


Kaicome, J. (2019): Marking 70 Years of War in Myanmar. – The Diplomat Official Potal. Available on:


Karen News (2012): Karen fighters and Burma Army soldiers killed over ceasefire breach. – Karen News Official Portal. Available on:


Kaung, B. (2011): Will Naypyidaw’s Olive Branch Bear Fruit? – The Irrawaddy Official Portal. Available on:


Kumbun, J. (2017a): Kachin’s Natural Resources: A Curse More Than a Blessing. – The Irrawaddy Official Portal. Available on:


Kumbun, J. (2017b): Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement is a Forlorn Hope. – The Irrawaddy Official Portal. Available on:


Lone, W. (2016): After violence, Myanmar moves to curb religious extremism. – Reuters Official Portal. Available on:


Luce, G.H. (1986): Phase of pre-pagan Burma: Languages and history. – Oxford University Press 342p.

Lwin, E.E.T., Kaspar, A. (2019): From Panglong I to Panglong II: A timeline. – Myanmar Times Official Portal. Available on:


McVeigh, K. (2019): UN urges worldwide withdrawal of support for Myanmar military. – The Guardian Official Portal. Available on:


Myint, S.A. (2016): It’s time for the KIO to sign up to peace. – Frontier Myanmar. Available on:


Myint-U, T. (2006): The River of Lost Footsteps-Histories of Burma. – Farrar, Straus and Giroux 400p.

Nallu, P. (2012): Myanmar shan refuges struggle at Thai border. – Al Jazeera Official Portal. Available on:


O’Kane, M. (2019): EU Parliament calls on UN to impose arms embargo on Myanmar. – EU Sanctions Official Portal. Available on:


Pagnucco, R., Peters, J. (2015): Myanmar’s national ceasefire agreement to end 68 year civil war isn’t all that national. – Vice News Official Portal. Available on:


Pinheiro, P.S. (2007): Human rights situations that require the councils’ attention. – Human Rights Council, United Nations 32p.

Piper Rudnick Gray Cary (2005): Threat to the Peace: A Call for the UN Security Council to Act in Burma. – DLA Piper Global Law Firm 80p.

Shendrikova, D. (2017): Why the Myanmar crisis makes Russia choose between Muslim and Buddhist minorities inside. – Istituto Per Gli Studi Di Politica Internazionale. Available on:


Slodkowski, A. (2015): Myanmar signs ceasefire with eight armed groups. – Reuters. Available on:


Smith, M. (2014): Arakan (Rakhni State)-A land in conflict on Myanmar’s Western Frontier. – Transnational Institute 160p.

US Department of State (2005): Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. – US Department of State Official Portal. Available on:


Wang, A. (2017): Why the Rohingya will never be welcome in Myanmar. – Post magazine Official Portal. Available on:





How to Cite

ZREIK, M. (2021). FUTURE OF THE INTERNAL CONFLICT IN MYANMAR. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(2), 25–35. Retrieved from https://www.qjssh.com/index.php/qjssh/article/view/45