• CHRISTINE SER HUI CHEN Faculty of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • MENG CHUAN HO Centre for Pre-U Studies, UCSI University Springhill Campus, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • QI RUI GOH Centre for Pre-U Studies, UCSI University Springhill Campus, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • PEI BOON OOI Department of Medical Sciences, Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • CHING SIN SIAU Center for Community Health Studies (ReaCH), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Selangor, Malaysia.



parental control, academic self-efficacy, Malaysian secondary school, quantitative study


The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between parental control, specifically paternal control and maternal control, and academic self-efficacy among secondary school students in Selangor, Malaysia. The level of parental supervision and influence over their children's academic pursuits was defined as parental control. Academic self-efficacy related to students' belief in their academic abilities. Utilising Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, the study explores the intricate dynamics within microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems to comprehend how parental control influences adolescents' academic self-efficacy. Focusing on the secondary school context in Malaysia, the study gathered data from at least 400 students in Selangor through self-assessed questionnaires. Two instruments, the Parental Control Scale (PCS) and the General Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE), were employed to measure perceptions of parental control and academic self-efficacy, respectively. The findings, analysed using SPSS version 29.0, revealed a moderate level of paternal and maternal control, with a majority exhibiting moderate academic self-efficacy. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a significant negative relationship between both paternal (r=-.18**) and maternal (r=-.16**) control and academic self-efficacy, indicating that higher parental control correlates with lower academic self-efficacy, the hypotheses were met. Addressing the study's limitations, recommendations for future research were included. This research contributes valuable insights for educators, parents, and policymakers to enhance students' academic self-efficacy within their ecological systems, considering the unique cultural and educational context of Selangor.


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